# Theoritical Framework

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*The research process: theoretical framework and hypothesis development

CHAPTER 4

*Chapter ObjectivesIdentify and label variables associated with any given situation.Establish the links among the variables and evolve a theoretical framework.Develop a set of hypotheses to be tested and state them in the null and the alternate.Apply what has been learned to a research project.

*Steps 4 and 5Step 4: Theoretical FrameworkStep 5: Generation Hypothesis

(see the next Figure)

*The Steps for Research process

Theoretical FrameworkA theoretical framework represents your beliefs on how certain phenomena (or variables or concepts) are related to each other (a model) and an explanation on why you believe that these variables are associated to each other (a theory).

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Theoretical FrameworkBasic steps:Identify and label the variables correctlyState the relationships among the variables: formulate hypothesesExplain how or why you expect these relationships

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VariablesAny concept or construct that varies or changes in value

Main types of variables:Dependent variableIndependent variableModerating variable Mediating variable (or intervening)

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(In)dependent VariablesDependent variable (DV)Is of primary interest to the researcher. The goal of the research project is to understand, predict or explain the variability of this variable.

Independent variable (IV)Influences the DV in either positive or negative way. The variance in the DV is accounted for by the IV.

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*ExamplesList the variables, and label them as dependent or independent, explaining why they are so labeled.

Example 1 An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members in particular bank.

*Answer to Example 1The dependent variable is organizational performance because it is the primary variable of interest to the applied researcher, who wants to increase the commitment of the members in the bank.

*Example 2A marketing manager wonders why the recent advertisement strategy does not work. What would be the dependent variable here?Answer: The dependent variable is advertisement strategy because the marketing manager is interested in knowing why the recent strategy does not work.

* Example 3Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence on the stock market price of the company. That is, the more successful the new product turns out to be, the higher will be the stock market price of the firm.

*Answer to the Example 3Independent Variable is the success of the new product.Dependent Variable is the stock market price.

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*Example 4Cross-cultural research indicates that managerial values govern the power distance between superiors and subordinates.

Dependent V. : the power distance. Independent V. : Managerial values.

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*Example 5A manager believes that good supervision and training would increase the production level of the workers.Answer

Dependent V.: Production ( Main variable of interest) Independent V.: Supervision and Training ( Help to explain the variance in production)

*Example 6A consultant is of the opinion that much benefit would accrue by buying and selling at the appropriate times in a financial environment where the stocks are volatile.Answer

Dependent V.: Gains (variable of primary interest). Independent V.: Buying at right time and Selling at right time (Explain the variance in gains or benefit).

*Example 7It has been found that there is a relationship between the availability of Reference Manuals that manufacturing employees have access to, and the product rejects. That is, when workers follow the procedures laid down in the manual, they are able to manufacture products that are flawless.

*Answer to Example 7Dependent Variable: number of Rejects.Independent Variable: Availability of Reference Manuals.

*Figure 3a

*Example 7 (Cont.)Although this relationship is true in general for all workers, but it is not true for workers who are not using the manual every time they need it. Thus, the interest and inclination of the workers is a Moderating Variable.

( See Figure 3B)

*Figure 3B

*ModeratorsModerating variable

Moderator is qualitative (e.g., gender, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of relation between independent and dependent variable.*

*The Moderating VariableIs one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship.The presence of the moderating variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

*Example 8A prevalent theory is that the diversity of the workforce (according to different ethnic origins, races, and nationalities) contributes more to organizational effectiveness because each group brings it own special expertise and skills to the workplace. This synergy can be exploited, however, only if managers know how to harness the special talents of the diverse work group; otherwise, they will remain untapped.

(See Figure 4)

*Figure 4

*Distinction Between VariablesSituation 1:

A research study indicates that the better the quality of the training programs in an organization and the greater the growth needs of the employees ( where the need to develop and grow on the job is strong), the greater is their willingness to learn new ways of doing things.

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The dependent variable: the employees willingness to learn.The independent variables: the training programs and growth need strength.

( See Figure 5A)

*Figure 5A

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Situation 2

Another research study indicates that the willingness of the employees to learn new ways of doing things is not influenced by the quality of the training programs offered by the organizations to all people without any distinction. Only those with high growth needs seem to have the yearning to learn to do new things through specialized training.

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The dependent variable in this case is the employees willingness to learn.The independent variable is the quality of the training program.The moderating variable is the growth need strength( only those with high growth needs show a greater willingness and adaptability to learn to do new things when the quality of the training programs is improved.

(See Figure 5B)

*Figure 5B

*The Intervening VariableIs one that surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it.

*Example 9In Example 8 where:A prevalent theory is that the diversity of the workforce (according to different ethnic origins, races, and nationalities) contributes more to organizational effectiveness because each group brings it own special expertise and skills to the workplace. This synergy can be exploited, however, only if managers know how to harness the special talents of the diverse work group; otherwise, they will remain untapped.

*Example 9 Cont.The dependent variable: the organizational effectiveness.The independent variable: the workforce diversity.The intervening variable that surfaces as a function of the diversity in the workforce is creative synergy.

*The Intervening VariableThis creative synergy results from the "diverse" workforce interacting and bringing together their expertise in problem solving.Note that creative synergy, the intervening variable, surfaces at time t2, as a function of workforce diversity, which was in place at time t1, to bring about organizational effectiveness in time t3. The dynamics of these relationships are illustrated in Figures 6 and 7.

*Figure 6

*Figure 7

*Theoretical FrameworkHaving examined the different kinds of variables that could operate in a situation and how the relationships among these can be established, it is now possible to see how we can develop the conceptual model or the theoretical framework for our research.

*Theoretical FrameworkThe theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based.It is a logically developed, described, and elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation.

*The components of the theoretical frameworkThe variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly defined.A conceptual model that describes the relationships between the variables in the model should be given.A clear explanation of why we expect these relationships to exist.

*The Relationship Between the Literature Survey and the Theoretical FrameworkThe literature survey provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical framework.The literature survey identifies the variables that might be important, as determined by previous research findings.

*The Relationship Between the Literature Survey and the Theoretical FrameworkThe theoretical framework elaborates the relationships among the variables, explains the theory underlying these relations, and describes the nature and direction of the relationships.The theoretical framework provides the logical base for developing testable hypotheses.

*Example 10 Delta AirlinesAccording to the reports, Delta Airlines faced charges of air-safety violations when there were several near col